Biomaterial scaffold implanted after spinal cord injury promotes nerve regeneration
Researchers from the Mayo Clinic have demonstrated that implantation of a biomaterial scaffold designed to bridge the lesion caused by a spinal cord injury creates a tissue environment more favourable for nerve regeneration. The desirable tissue reaction to the implant did not appear to depend on whether the scaffold was seeded with tissue-specific cells, according to the study published in Tissue Engineering.
Anthony Windebank and coauthors at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, USA, evaluated the response of nerve tissue to an implanted biomaterial scaffold, with or without Schwann cells, at the site of a full transection spinal cord injury in rats.
The authors reported reduced scarring, cyst formation and deposition of debris and protein complexes that can inhibit nerve regeneration. Seeding of Schwann cells in the scaffold channels did not have a significant effect on the lesion environment. Future research to discover therapeutic agents able to block the fibrotic response to these scaffolds could improve their ability to bridge spinal cord lesions.
“In their study of spinal cord transection injury in rats [the researchers] discovered that bare scaffold implantation – but not implantation of scaffold plus Schwann cells – temporarily enabled a ‘regeneration permissive’ environment, in which immediate scarring of the spinal cord was forestalled,” said Peter Johnson, vice president of R&D and medical affairs at Vancive Medical Technologies. “While scaffold fibrosis ultimately ensued, the notion that proper scaffold design alone could provide sufficient time for axonal growth across spinal cord gaps has re-emerged as an interesting target of study.”
Hakim, J.S., Esmaeili, R.M., Grahn, P.J., et al. (2015) Positively charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] scaffold implantation results in a permissive lesion environment after spinal cord injury in rat. Tissue Engineering Part A. doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2015.0019.rev.